GEOSITES > Sandal Divlit

Sandal Divlit

Sandal Divlit Volcanic Cone:

This cone is one of the most spectacular parts of the volcanic landscape formed in the 3rd phase of Kula volcanism (Divlit Tepe Volcanics) and it is one of the 80 volcanic cones in the area. It resembles a miniature volcano in its physical appearance.

In terms of formation and shape properties, it resembles a cinder cone or scoria cone type volcano. A cinder cone is a steep conical hill of loose pyroclastic fragments, formed of either volcanic clinker, volcanic ash, or cinder, that has been built around a volcanic vent. The pyroclastic fragments are formed by explosive eruptions or lava fountains from a single, typically cylindrical, vent. The constituent parts of the cone can be of very different sizes ranging from very fine-grained ash size material to volcanic bombs of a size that can exceed 1 meter in diameter. This type of volcano cones in the Kula region are called "Divlit".

The pyroclastic materials forming the Sandal-Divlit cone are of a black-dark brown colour, usually of hazelnut-lentil size, with multi-hollows. With a freshly formed and distinct appearance, the height of this cone is 900m above sea level and its relative elevation is 150 m. Its crater is 220m m. in wide. With quite a visible appearance from the İzmir-Ankara highway, this cone is one of the most characteristic volcanic cones formed in the course of Kula volcanism. The Sandal cone, which preserved its natural structure (Sandal Divlit), is also one of Turkey's youngest volcanic cones.

Sandal Divlit Lava Flow

The lava flow is formed as a result of high-temperature basaltic lava extruded onto the earth-surface from the cracks in the crust. When the hot magma reaches the earth surface, depending on its temperature and thus its viscosity, it flows for some distance down to the lower levels of the landscape as it solidifies into rock.

The lava flows seen around the Sandal cone formed as a result of the rising up of the high-temperature basaltic-lava from the Sandal Cone and from the nearby cracks and it overflowed down to relatively lower altitudes in the vicinity of the cone and flowed towards the Gediz Valley north. As lava travelled down the sides of the volcano, the surface of the flow cooled much more rapidly. The surface of the flow has a rough, jagged surface due to the gas explosions that tore apart the external crust. It looks like a pile of blocks and rock fragments but underneath lay molten lava. As the lava flow advanced it is churned and folded over itself, allowing the gas to escape. This sort of lava is called  “AA Lava”, which is of Hawaiian origin term.

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